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Fire protection for drain technology

Proper floor drain protection

Your responsibility for fire safety

If buildings catch fire, floor drains are potential weak spots through which fire, smoke and toxic gases can spread from room to room. For this reason, regional German building regulations prescribe suitable preventative fire protection measures in drain technology. Find out the most important aspects of how to protect floor drains professionally against the effects of fire in order to guarantee fire safety in your building and prevent liability claims.

When planning your building, please take the applicable building code, pipeline systems directive (LAR) and regulations from standard DIN 4102 into account. If you are in any doubt, please consult a specialist fire protection planner.

Floor drains as a risk factor in the event of a fire

How quickly a fire spreads in a building depends on how long the room boundaries withstand the flames and the smoke and gas particles these produce. Insufficiently protected floor drains conceal several risks in this respect:

Gas and smoke may escape from unprotected drains

Smoke / gas emission

through leaks in and around the floor drain.

Fire may spread through unprotected drains

Spread of fire

to other rooms due to the drainage system "burning away".

Transfer of heat through unprotected drains

Heat transfer

and the ignition of combustible materials through non-combustible draining objects.

Fire resistance classes of floor drains

Different fire resistance classes in accordance with DIN 4102 are prescribed depending on the federal German state, type of building and installation location. The number value of the fire resistance class specifies how long a tested component must be able to withstand a fire in minutes. The fire resistance classes relevant for floor drains are:

  • F30 (“fire retardant”)
  • F60 (“highly fire retardant”)
  • F90 (“fire resistant”)
  • F120 (“highly fire resistant”)

Always heed the specifications in your project-specific fire protection concept.

Fire protection measures for floor drains

On the one hand, floor drains are protected against fires by smoke gas-tight odour traps and closures between core drilling and drain body (by means of suitable filling or passage seal). On the other, special fire protection inserts are used. These block the path of flames, smoke and toxic gases between one room and the next.

How does a fire protection insert work?

A fire protection insert is inserted into the pipe socket on the underside of a floor drain. It is made of heat-sensitive material which swells up as soon as it comes into contact with fire and therefore seals the drain. 

Fire protection insert when there is no fire

Pipe becomes loose

due to extreme heat exposure.

Fire protection insert swells up as soon as it comes into contact with fire.

Fire-protection insert swells up

as soon as it comes into contact with fire.

Drain is sealed and prevents further fire damage

Drain is sealed

and therefore prevents further fire damage.

Fire-Kit & Quick-Fit:

Fire protection for KESSEL drains

With the Fire-Kit fire and smoke gas protection insert and the Quick-Fit pipe penetration seal, our range includes suitable accessories for the proper sealing of KESSEL drains against fire. The Fire-Kit ensures the fire-resistant sealing of the drain in the event of a fire, while the Quick-Fit pipe penetration seal represents a simple-to-install alternative to conventional filling materials for sealing core drill holes. The fire protection compound integrated into it seals any leaks between the drain body and the core drill holes in the event of a fire. Both the Fire-Kit and Quick-Fit fulfil the requirements of fire resistance class R120 for pipe penetrations.

Fire kit fire protection insert approval

Our Fire Kit fire protection insert not only has a national technical approval (NTA), but also a general type approval (GTA) and is therefore a good and safe addition to KESSEL floor drains.

General technical approval no. Z-19.17-1719

General type approval no. Z-19.53-2414

Where is this protection not required?

At some installation locations, the model building regulation (MBO) allows you to dispense with preventative fire protection measures in floor drains.

Detached house

In one-family or two-family houses


Vertical outlet

Directly above soil

Floor drain in a floor directly above soil